As we approach the era of quantum advantage, when quantum computers (QCs) can outperform any classical computer on particular tasks, there remains the difficult challenge of how to validate their performance. While algorithmic success can be easily verified in some instances such as number factoring or oracular algorithms, these approaches only provide pass/fail information for a single QC. On the other hand, a comparison between different QCs on the same arbitrary circuit provides a lower-bound for generic validation: a quantum computation is only as valid as the agreement between the results produced on different QCs. Such an approach is also at the heart of evaluating metrological standards such as disparate atomic clocks. In this paper, we report a cross-platform QC comparison using randomized and correlated measurements that results in a wealth of information on the QC systems. We execute several quantum circuits on widely different physical QC platforms and analyze the cross-platform fidelities.

1 aZhu, Daiwei1 aCian, Ze-Pei1 aNoel, Crystal1 aRisinger, Andrew1 aBiswas, Debopriyo1 aEgan, Laird1 aZhu, Yingyue1 aGreen, Alaina, M.1 aAlderete, Cinthia, Huerta1 aNguyen, Nhung, H.1 aWang, Qingfeng1 aMaksymov, Andrii1 aNam, Yunseong1 aCetina, Marko1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2107.1138701551nas a2200193 4500008004100000245009300041210006900134260001300203520092900216100002101145700001901166700002201185700001601207700002401223700002401247700002601271700002301297856003701320 2020 eng d00aQuantum walks and Dirac cellular automata on a programmable trapped-ion quantum computer0 aQuantum walks and Dirac cellular automata on a programmable trap c2/6/20203 aThe quantum walk formalism is a widely used and highly successful framework for modeling quantum systems, such as simulations of the Dirac equation, different dynamics in both the low and high energy regime, and for developing a wide range of quantum algorithms. Here we present the circuit-based implementation of a discrete-time quantum walk in position space on a five-qubit trapped-ion quantum processor. We encode the space of walker positions in particular multi-qubit states and program the system to operate with different quantum walk parameters, experimentally realizing a Dirac cellular automaton with tunable mass parameter. The quantum walk circuits and position state mapping scale favorably to a larger model and physical systems, allowing the implementation of any algorithm based on discrete-time quantum walks algorithm and the dynamics associated with the discretized version of the Dirac equation.

1 aAlderete, Huerta1 aSingh, Shivani1 aNguyen, Nhung, H.1 aZhu, Daiwei1 aBalu, Radhakrishnan1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aChandrashekar, C., M.1 aLinke, Norbert, M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2002.0253701306nas a2200169 4500008004100000245011300041210006900154260001400223520072000237100001900957700002600976700002401002700002401026700002301050700002601073856003701099 2020 eng d00aUniversal one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walks and their implementation on near term quantum hardware0 aUniversal onedimensional discretetime quantum walks and their im c1/30/20203 aQuantum walks are a promising framework for developing quantum algorithms and quantum simulations. Quantum walks represent an important test case for the application of quantum computers. Here we present different forms of discrete-time quantum walks and show their equivalence for physical realizations. Using an appropriate digital mapping of the position space on which a walker evolves onto the multi-qubit states in a quantum processor, we present different configurations of quantum circuits for the implementation of discrete-time quantum walks in one-dimensional position space. With example circuits for a five qubit machine we address scalability to higher dimensions and larger quantum processors.

1 aSingh, Shivani1 aAlderete, Cinthia, H.1 aBalu, Radhakrishnan1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aChandrashekar, C., M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2001.1119701624nas a2200193 4500008004100000245009000041210006900131260001500200520100400215100001701219700002401236700001801260700001601278700002301294700002401317700002401341700002801365856003701393 2019 eng d00aToward convergence of effective field theory simulations on digital quantum computers0 aToward convergence of effective field theory simulations on digi c04/18/20193 aWe report results for simulating an effective field theory to compute the binding energy of the deuteron nucleus using a hybrid algorithm on a trapped-ion quantum computer. Two increasingly complex unitary coupled-cluster ansaetze have been used to compute the binding energy to within a few percent for successively more complex Hamiltonians. By increasing the complexity of the Hamiltonian, allowing more terms in the effective field theory expansion and calculating their expectation values, we present a benchmark for quantum computers based on their ability to scalably calculate the effective field theory with increasing accuracy. Our result of E4=−2.220±0.179MeV may be compared with the exact Deuteron ground-state energy −2.224MeV. We also demonstrate an error mitigation technique using Richardson extrapolation on ion traps for the first time. The error mitigation circuit represents a record for deepest quantum circuit on a trapped-ion quantum computer.

1 aShehab, Omar1 aLandsman, Kevin, A.1 aNam, Yunseong1 aZhu, Daiwei1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aKeesan, Matthew, J.1 aPooser, Raphael, C.1 aMonroe, Christopher, R. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1904.0433801499nas a2200193 4500008004100000245007800041210006900119260001500188520089900203100002401102700001401126700002101140700001601161700002301177700002301200700001701223700002801240856003701268 2019 eng d00aTwo-qubit entangling gates within arbitrarily long chains of trapped ions0 aTwoqubit entangling gates within arbitrarily long chains of trap c05/28/20193 aIon trap systems are a leading platform for large scale quantum computers. Trapped ion qubit crystals are fully-connected and reconfigurable, owing to their long range Coulomb interaction that can be modulated with external optical forces. However, the spectral crowding of collective motional modes could pose a challenge to the control of such interactions for large numbers of qubits. Here, we show that high-fidelity quantum gate operations are still possible with very large trapped ion crystals, simplifying the scaling of ion trap quantum computers. To this end, we present analytical work that determines how parallel entangling gates produce a crosstalk error that falls off as the inverse cube of the distance between the pairs. We also show experimental work demonstrating entangling gates on a fully-connected chain of seventeen 171Yb+ ions with fidelities as high as 97(1)%.

1 aLandsman, Kevin, A.1 aWu, Yukai1 aLeung, Pak, Hong1 aZhu, Daiwei1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aBrown, Kenneth, R.1 aDuan, Luming1 aMonroe, Christopher, R. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.1042101552nas a2200169 4500008004100000245007500041210006900116520100400185100001901189700002301208700002201231700002401253700002401277700002001301700002401321856003701345 2018 eng d00aDemonstration of Bayesian quantum game on an ion trap quantum computer0 aDemonstration of Bayesian quantum game on an ion trap quantum co3 aWe demonstrate a Bayesian quantum game on an ion trap quantum computer with five qubits. The players share an entangled pair of qubits and perform rotations on their qubit as the strategy choice. Two five-qubit circuits are sufficient to run all 16 possible strategy choice sets in a game with four possible strategies. The data are then parsed into player types randomly in order to combine them classically into a Bayesian framework. We exhaustively compute the possible strategies of the game so that the experimental data can be used to solve for the Nash equilibria of the game directly. Then we compare the payoff at the Nash equilibria and location of phase-change-like transitions obtained from the experimental data to the theory, and study how it changes as a function of the amount of entanglement.

1 aSolmeyer, Neal1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aFiggatt, Caroline1 aLandsman, Kevin, A.1 aBalu, Radhakrishnan1 aSiopsis, George1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1802.0811601356nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006000041210005900101260001500160490000700175520083200182100001801014700002401032700002301056700002201079700001501101700002101116856003701137 2018 eng d00aMachine learning assisted readout of trapped-ion qubits0 aMachine learning assisted readout of trappedion qubits c2018/05/010 v513 aWe reduce measurement errors in a quantum computer using machine learning techniques. We exploit a simple yet versatile neural network to classify multi-qubit quantum states, which is trained using experimental data. This flexible approach allows the incorporation of any number of features of the data with minimal modifications to the underlying network architecture. We experimentally illustrate this approach in the readout of trapped-ion qubits using additional spatial and temporal features in the data. Using this neural network classifier, we efficiently treat qubit readout crosstalk, resulting in a 30\% improvement in detection error over the conventional threshold method. Our approach does not depend on the specific details of the system and can be readily generalized to other quantum computing platforms.

1 aSeif, Alireza1 aLandsman, Kevin, A.1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aFiggatt, Caroline1 aMonroe, C.1 aHafezi, Mohammad uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1804.0771801532nas a2200193 4500008004100000245009300041210006900134260001500203300001100218490000800229520089100237100002101128700002401149700002201173700002301195700002401218700002301242856007301265 2018 eng d00aRobust two-qubit gates in a linear ion crystal using a frequency-modulated driving force0 aRobust twoqubit gates in a linear ion crystal using a frequencym c2018/01/09 a0205010 v1203 aIn an ion trap quantum computer, collective motional modes are used to entangle two or more qubits in order to execute multi-qubit logical gates. Any residual entanglement between the internal and motional states of the ions will result in decoherence errors, especially when there are many spectator ions in the crystal. We propose using a frequency-modulated (FM) driving force to minimize such errors and implement it experimentally. In simulation, we obtained an optimized FM gate that can suppress decoherence to less than 10−4 and is robust against a frequency drift of more than ±1 kHz. The two-qubit gate was tested in a five-qubit trapped ion crystal, with 98.3(4)% fidelity for a Mølmer-Sørensen entangling gate and 98.6(7)% for a controlled-not (CNOT) gate. We also show an optimized FM two-qubit gate for 17 ions, proving the scalability of our method.

1 aLeung, Pak, Hong1 aLandsman, Kevin, A.1 aFiggatt, Caroline1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aBrown, Kenneth, R. uhttps://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.02050101858nas a2200169 4500008004100000245004400041210004400085520137000129100002401499700002201523700002101545700002301566700001801589700002001607700002401627856003701651 2018 eng d00aVerified Quantum Information Scrambling0 aVerified Quantum Information Scrambling3 aQuantum scrambling is the dispersal of local information into many-body quantum entanglements and correlations distributed throughout the entire system. This concept underlies the dynamics of thermalization in closed quantum systems, and more recently has emerged as a powerful tool for characterizing chaos in black holes. However, the direct experimental measurement of quantum scrambling is difficult, owing to the exponential complexity of ergodic many-body entangled states. One way to characterize quantum scrambling is to measure an out-of-time-ordered correlation function (OTOC); however, since scrambling leads to their decay, OTOCs do not generally discriminate between quantum scrambling and ordinary decoherence. Here, we implement a quantum circuit that provides a positive test for the scrambling features of a given unitary process. This approach conditionally teleports a quantum state through the circuit, providing an unambiguous litmus test for scrambling while projecting potential circuit errors into an ancillary observable. We engineer quantum scrambling processes through a tunable 3-qubit unitary operation as part of a 7-qubit circuit on an ion trap quantum computer. Measured teleportation fidelities are typically ∼80%, and enable us to experimentally bound the scrambling-induced decay of the corresponding OTOC measurement.

1 aLandsman, Kevin, A.1 aFiggatt, Caroline1 aSchuster, Thomas1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aYoshida, Beni1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1806.02807