Continuous-variable systems protected by bosonic quantum codes have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information. To date, the design of code words has centered on optimizing the state occupation in the relevant basis to generate the distance needed for error correction. Here, we show tuning the phase degree of freedom in the design of code words can affect, and potentially enhance, the protection against Markovian errors that involve excitation exchange with the environment. As illustrations, we first consider phase engineering bosonic codes with uniform spacing in the Fock basis that correct excitation loss with a Kerr unitary and show that these modified codes feature destructive interference between error code words and, with an adapted “two-level” recovery, the error protection is significantly enhanced. We then study protection against energy decay with the presence of mode nonlinearities …

1 aLi, Linshu1 aYoung, Dylan, J1 aAlbert, Victor, V.1 aNoh, Kyungjoo1 aZou, Chang-Ling1 aJiang, Liang uhttps://authors.library.caltech.edu/109764/2/1901.05358.pdf02376nas a2200157 4500008004100000245005000041210004900091260001500140520192200155100002102077700002202098700002002120700001702140700002402157856003702181 2020 eng d00aQuantum coding with low-depth random circuits0 aQuantum coding with lowdepth random circuits c10/19/20203 aRandom quantum circuits have played a central role in establishing the computational advantages of near-term quantum computers over their conventional counterparts. Here, we use ensembles of low-depth random circuits with local connectivity in D≥1 spatial dimensions to generate quantum error-correcting codes. For random stabilizer codes and the erasure channel, we find strong evidence that a depth O(logN) random circuit is necessary and sufficient to converge (with high probability) to zero failure probability for any finite amount below the channel capacity for any D. Previous results on random circuits have only shown that O(N1/D) depth suffices or that O(log3N) depth suffices for all-to-all connectivity (D→∞). We then study the critical behavior of the erasure threshold in the so-called moderate deviation limit, where both the failure probability and the distance to the channel capacity converge to zero with N. We find that the requisite depth scales like O(logN) only for dimensions D≥2, and that random circuits require O(N−−√) depth for D=1. Finally, we introduce an "expurgation" algorithm that uses quantum measurements to remove logical operators that cause the code to fail by turning them into either additional stabilizers or into gauge operators in a subsystem code. With such targeted measurements, we can achieve sub-logarithmic depth in D≥2 spatial dimensions below capacity without increasing the maximum weight of the check operators. We find that for any rate beneath the capacity, high-performing codes with thousands of logical qubits are achievable with depth 4-8 expurgated random circuits in D=2 dimensions. These results indicate that finite-rate quantum codes are practically relevant for near-term devices and may significantly reduce the resource requirements to achieve fault tolerance for near-term applications.

1 aGullans, Michael1 aKrastanov, Stefan1 aHuse, David, A.1 aJiang, Liang1 aFlammia, Steven, T. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2010.0977502955nas a2200397 4500008004100000245008600041210006900127260001500196520181200211100002102023700002302044700002002067700001702087700002202104700001702126700002502143700001802168700001902186700001702205700001702222700002702239700001502266700001702281700001802298700001702316700001602333700002002349700001902369700002302388700002502411700002402436700001802460700002002478700002202498856003702520 2019 eng d00aDevelopment of Quantum InterConnects for Next-Generation Information Technologies0 aDevelopment of Quantum InterConnects for NextGeneration Informat c12/13/20193 aJust as classical information technology rests on a foundation built of interconnected information-processing systems, quantum information technology (QIT) must do the same. A critical component of such systems is the interconnect, a device or process that allows transfer of information between disparate physical media, for example, semiconductor electronics, individual atoms, light pulses in optical fiber, or microwave fields. While interconnects have been well engineered for decades in the realm of classical information technology, quantum interconnects (QuICs) present special challenges, as they must allow the transfer of fragile quantum states between different physical parts or degrees of freedom of the system. The diversity of QIT platforms (superconducting, atomic, solid-state color center, optical, etc.) that will form a quantum internet poses additional challenges. As quantum systems scale to larger size, the quantum interconnect bottleneck is imminent, and is emerging as a grand challenge for QIT. For these reasons, it is the position of the community represented by participants of the NSF workshop on Quantum Interconnects that accelerating QuIC research is crucial for sustained development of a national quantum science and technology program. Given the diversity of QIT platforms, materials used, applications, and infrastructure required, a convergent research program including partnership between academia, industry and national laboratories is required. This document is a summary from a U.S. National Science Foundation supported workshop held on 31 October - 1 November 2019 in Alexandria, VA. Attendees were charged to identify the scientific and community needs, opportunities, and significant challenges for quantum interconnects over the next 2-5 years.

1 aAwschalom, David1 aBerggren, Karl, K.1 aBernien, Hannes1 aBhave, Sunil1 aCarr, Lincoln, D.1 aDavids, Paul1 aEconomou, Sophia, E.1 aEnglund, Dirk1 aFaraon, Andrei1 aFejer, Marty1 aGuha, Saikat1 aGustafsson, Martin, V.1 aHu, Evelyn1 aJiang, Liang1 aKim, Jungsang1 aKorzh, Boris1 aKumar, Prem1 aKwiat, Paul, G.1 aLonÄ¨ar, Marko1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aMiller, David, A. B.1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aNam, Sae, Woo1 aNarang, Prineha1 aOrcutt, Jason, S. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1912.0664201434nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005500041210005500096260001500151490000800166520090200174100001701076700001601093700001701109700001801126700002101144700001701165700002101182856003701203 2019 eng d00aPhoton pair condensation by engineered dissipation0 aPhoton pair condensation by engineered dissipation c04/02/20190 v1233 aDissipation can usually induce detrimental decoherence in a quantum system. However, engineered dissipation can be used to prepare and stabilize coherent quantum many-body states. Here, we show that by engineering dissipators containing photon pair operators, one can stabilize an exotic dark state, which is a condensate of photon pairs with a phase-nematic order. In this system, the usual superfluid order parameter, i.e. single-photon correlation, is absent, while the photon pair correlation exhibits long-range order. Although the dark state is not unique due to multiple parity sectors, we devise an additional type of dissipators to stabilize the dark state in a particular parity sector via a diffusive annihilation process which obeys Glauber dynamics in an Ising model. Furthermore, we propose an implementation of these photon-pair dissipators in circuit-QED architecture.

1 aCian, Ze-Pei1 aZhu, Guanyu1 aChu, Su-Kuan1 aSeif, Alireza1 aDeGottardi, Wade1 aJiang, Liang1 aHafezi, Mohammad uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1904.0001601711nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005600041210005600097260001500153490000700168520117600175100002301351700002701374700002101401700001701422700002401439700002901463856003701492 2019 eng d00aQuantum repeaters based on two species trapped ions0 aQuantum repeaters based on two species trapped ions c05/02/20190 v213 aWe examine the viability of quantum repeaters based on two-species trapped ion modules for long distance quantum key distribution. Repeater nodes comprised of ion-trap modules of co-trapped ions of distinct species are considered. The species used for communication qubits has excellent optical properties while the other longer lived species serves as a memory qubit in the modules. Each module interacts with the network only via single photons emitted by the communication ions. Coherent Coulomb interaction between ions is utilized to transfer quantum information between the communication and memory ions and to achieve entanglement swapping between two memory ions. We describe simple modular quantum repeater architectures realizable with the ion-trap modules and numerically study the dependence of the quantum key distribution rate on various experimental parameters, including coupling efficiency, gate infidelity, operation time and length of the elementary links. Our analysis suggests crucial improvements necessary in a physical implementation for co-trapped two-species ions to be a competitive platform in long-distance quantum communication.

1 aSantra, Siddhartha1 aMuralidharan, Sreraman1 aLichtman, Martin1 aJiang, Liang1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aMalinovsky, Vladimir, S. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1811.1072301995nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005100041210005100092260001300143490000700156520142000163100002001583700001901603700002301622700002401645700001801669700002301687700001701710700002501727856003701752 2013 eng d00aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers0 aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers c2013/2/60 v873 a We analyze two approaches to quantum state transfer in solid-state spin systems. First, we consider unpolarized spin-chains and extend previous analysis to various experimentally relevant imperfections, including quenched disorder, dynamical decoherence, and uncompensated long range coupling. In finite-length chains, the interplay between disorder-induced localization and decoherence yields a natural optimal channel fidelity, which we calculate. Long-range dipolar couplings induce a finite intrinsic lifetime for the mediating eigenmode; extensive numerical simulations of dipolar chains of lengths up to L=12 show remarkably high fidelity despite these decay processes. We further consider the extension of the protocol to bosonic systems of coupled oscillators. Second, we introduce a quantum mirror based architecture for universal quantum computing which exploits all of the spins in the system as potential qubits. While this dramatically increases the number of qubits available, the composite operations required to manipulate "dark" spin qubits significantly raise the error threshold for robust operation. Finally, as an example, we demonstrate that eigenmode-mediated state transfer can enable robust long-range logic between spatially separated Nitrogen-Vacancy registers in diamond; numerical simulations confirm that high fidelity gates are achievable even in the presence of moderate disorder. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aDuan, L., -M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0014v101443nas a2200217 4500008004100000245007500041210006900116260001400185300000900199490000600208520080900214100002001023700002301043700002501066700002001091700001701111700001901128700001801147700002301165856003701188 2013 eng d00aTopologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin Liquid0 aTopologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin c2013/3/12 a15850 v43 a Topology plays a central role in ensuring the robustness of a wide variety of physical phenomena. Notable examples range from the robust current carrying edge states associated with the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects to proposals involving topologically protected quantum memory and quantum logic operations. Here, we propose and analyze a topologically protected channel for the transfer of quantum states between remote quantum nodes. In our approach, state transfer is mediated by the edge mode of a chiral spin liquid. We demonstrate that the proposed method is intrinsically robust to realistic imperfections associated with disorder and decoherence. Possible experimental implementations and applications to the detection and characterization of spin liquid phases are discussed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeimer, Hendrik1 aJiang, Liang1 aCirac, Ignacio1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3788v101927nas a2200205 4500008004100000245009400041210006900135260001400204300000800218490000600226520130900232100002001541700001701561700002501578700002201603700001701625700001901642700002301661856003701684 2012 eng d00aScalable Architecture for a Room Temperature Solid-State Quantum Information Processor 0 aScalable Architecture for a Room Temperature SolidState Quantum c2012/4/24 a8000 v33 a The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Much progress has been made towards this goal. Indeed, quantum operations have been demonstrated on several trapped ion qubits, and other solid-state systems are approaching similar levels of control. Extending these techniques to achieve fault-tolerant operations in larger systems with more qubits remains an extremely challenging goal, in part, due to the substantial technical complexity of current implementations. Here, we propose and analyze an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at or near room temperature. The architecture is applicable to realistic conditions, which include disorder and relevant decoherence mechanisms, and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Our approach is based upon recent experimental advances involving Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers in diamond and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems. Additionally, the proposed architecture may greatly alleviate the stringent constraints, currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMaurer, Peter, C.1 aGiedke, Geza1 aCirac, Ignacio1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2864v101404nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006800041210006800109260001400177490000800191520083700199100002001036700001701056700002501073700001901098700001501117700001801132700002301150856003701173 2011 eng d00aRobust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains0 aRobust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains c2011/1/270 v1063 a We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between Nitrogen-Vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aZhai, Alex1 aDuan, L., -M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1011.2762v201226nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008600041210006900127260001400196490000700210520065700217100002300874700001700897700002500914700002000939700002500959700002300984856003701007 2010 eng d00aFast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluorescent Detection 0 aFast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluores c2010/2/120 v813 a Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensemble quantum memories are promising candidates for achieving scalable distribution of entanglement over long distances. Recently, important experimental progress has been made towards their implementation. However, the entanglement rates and scalability of current approaches are limited by relatively low retrieval and single-photon detector efficiencies. We propose a scheme, which makes use of fluorescent detection of stored excitations to significantly increase the efficiency of connection and hence the rate. Practical performance and possible experimental realizations of the new protocol are discussed. 1 aBrask, Jonatan, B.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aVuletic, Vladan1 aSorensen, Anders, S.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0907.3839v201661nas a2200217 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001400184300001400198490000600212520102000218100001701238700002301255700002501278700002201303700002101325700001901346700002301365700001801388856003701406 2008 eng d00aAnyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lattices0 aAnyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lat c2008/4/20 a482 - 4880 v43 a Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior called topological order which is characterized by non-local correlations that depend on the system topology. Such systems can exhibit remarkable phenomena such as quasi-particles with anyonic statistics and have been proposed as candidates for naturally fault-tolerant quantum computation. Despite these remarkable properties, anyons have never been observed in nature directly. Here we describe how to unambiguously detect and characterize such states in recently proposed spin lattice realizations using ultra-cold atoms or molecules trapped in an optical lattice. We propose an experimentally feasible technique to access non-local degrees of freedom by performing global operations on trapped spins mediated by an optical cavity mode. We show how to reliably read and write topologically protected quantum memory using an atomic or photonic qubit. Furthermore, our technique can be used to probe statistics and dynamics of anyonic excitations. 1 aJiang, Liang1 aBrennen, Gavin, K.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHammerer, Klemens1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aZoller, Peter uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0711.1365v101409nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006800041210006800109260001400177490000800191520083700199100001701036700002501053700001601078700002001094700002201114700001901136700002301155856003701178 2008 eng d00aCoherence of an optically illuminated single nuclear spin qubit0 aCoherence of an optically illuminated single nuclear spin qubit c2008/2/190 v1003 aWe investigate the coherence properties of individual nuclear spin quantum bits in diamond [Dutt et al., Science, 316, 1312 (2007)] when a proximal electronic spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is being interrogated by optical radiation. The resulting nuclear spin dynamics are governed by time-dependent hyperfine interaction associated with rapid electronic transitions, which can be described by a spin-fluctuator model. We show that due to a process analogous to motional averaging in nuclear magnetic resonance, the nuclear spin coherence can be preserved after a large number of optical excitation cycles. Our theoretical analysis is in good agreement with experimental results. It indicates a novel approach that could potentially isolate the nuclear spin system completely from the electronic environment. 1 aJiang, Liang1 aDutt, M., V. Gurudev1 aTogan, Emre1 aChildress, Lily1 aCappellaro, Paola1 aTaylor, J., M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0707.1341v201158nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006700041210006700108260001300175490000800188520065200196100002500848700001700873700002000890700001800910700002300928856003700951 2008 eng d00aCoherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution0 aCoherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution c2008/3/70 v1003 a We suggest a new method for quantum optical control with nanoscale resolution. Our method allows for coherent far-field manipulation of individual quantum systems with spatial selectivity that is not limited by the wavelength of radiation and can, in principle, approach a few nanometers. The selectivity is enabled by the nonlinear atomic response, under the conditions of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, to a control beam with intensity vanishing at a certain location. Practical performance of this technique and its potential applications to quantum information science with cold atoms, ions, and solid-state qubits are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGreiner, Markus1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0706.3879v2