The performance of a quantum information processing protocol is ultimately judged by distinguishability measures that quantify how distinguishable the actual result of the protocol is from the ideal case. The most prominent distinguishability measures are those based on the fidelity and trace distance, due to their physical interpretations. In this paper, we propose and review several algorithms for estimating distinguishability measures based on trace distance and fidelity, and we evaluate their performance using simulators of quantum computers. The algorithms can be used for distinguishing quantum states, channels, and strategies (the last also known in the literature as "quantum combs"). The fidelity-based algorithms offer novel physical interpretations of these distinguishability measures in terms of the maximum probability with which a single prover (or competing provers) can convince a verifier to accept the outcome of an associated computation. We simulate these algorithms by using a variational approach with parameterized quantum circuits and find that they converge well for the examples that we consider.

%8 8/18/2021 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.08406 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2020 %T Efficiently computable bounds for magic state distillation %A Xin Wang %A Mark M. Wilde %A Yuan Su %XMagic state manipulation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to realizing scalable, fault-tolerant, and universal quantum computation. Related to magic state manipulation is the resource theory of magic states, for which one of the goals is to characterize and quantify quantum "magic." In this paper, we introduce the family of thauma measures to quantify the amount of magic in a quantum state, and we exploit this family of measures to address several open questions in the resource theory of magic states. As a first application, we use the min-thauma to bound the regularized relative entropy of magic. As a consequence of this bound, we find that two classes of states with maximal mana, a previously established magic measure, cannot be interconverted in the asymptotic regime at a rate equal to one. This result resolves a basic question in the resource theory of magic states and reveals a fundamental difference between the resource theory of magic states and other resource theories such as entanglement and coherence. As a second application, we establish the hypothesis testing thauma as an efficiently computable benchmark for the one-shot distillable magic, which in turn leads to a variety of bounds on the rate at which magic can be distilled, as well as on the overhead of magic state distillation. Finally, we prove that the max-thauma can outperform mana in benchmarking the efficiency of magic state distillation.

%B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 124 %8 3/6/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.10145 %N 090505 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.090505 %0 Journal Article %J New Journal of Physics %D 2019 %T Quantifying the magic of quantum channels %A Xin Wang %A Mark M. Wilde %A Yuan Su %XTo achieve universal quantum computation via general fault-tolerant schemes, stabilizer operations must be supplemented with other non-stabilizer quantum resources. Motivated by this necessity, we develop a resource theory for magic quantum channels to characterize and quantify the quantum "magic" or non-stabilizerness of noisy quantum circuits. For qudit quantum computing with odd dimension d, it is known that quantum states with non-negative Wigner function can be efficiently simulated classically. First, inspired by this observation, we introduce a resource theory based on completely positive-Wigner-preserving quantum operations as free operations, and we show that they can be efficiently simulated via a classical algorithm. Second, we introduce two efficiently computable magic measures for quantum channels, called the mana and thauma of a quantum channel. As applications, we show that these measures not only provide fundamental limits on the distillable magic of quantum channels, but they also lead to lower bounds for the task of synthesizing non-Clifford gates. Third, we propose a classical algorithm for simulating noisy quantum circuits, whose sample complexity can be quantified by the mana of a quantum channel. We further show that this algorithm can outperform another approach for simulating noisy quantum circuits, based on channel robustness. Finally, we explore the threshold of non-stabilizerness for basic quantum circuits under depolarizing noise.

%B New Journal of Physics %V 21 %8 10/8/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1903.04483 %N 103002 %R https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/ab451d %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Resource theory of asymmetric distinguishability for quantum channels %A Xin Wang %A Mark M. Wilde %XThis paper develops the resource theory of asymmetric distinguishability for quantum channels, generalizing the related resource theory for states [arXiv:1006.0302, arXiv:1905.11629]. The key constituents of the channel resource theory are quantum channel boxes, consisting of a pair of quantum channels, which can be manipulated for free by means of an arbitrary quantum superchannel (the most general physical transformation of a quantum channel). One main question of the resource theory is the approximate channel box transformation problem, in which the goal is to transform an initial channel box (or boxes) to a final channel box (or boxes), while allowing for an asymmetric error in the transformation. The channel resource theory is richer than its counterpart for states because there is a wider variety of ways in which this question can be framed, either in the one-shot or n-shot regimes, with the latter having parallel and sequential variants. As in [arXiv:1905.11629], we consider two special cases of the general channel box transformation problem, known as distinguishability distillation and dilution. For the one-shot case, we find that the optimal values of the various tasks are equal to the non-smooth or smooth channel min- or max-relative entropies, thus endowing all of these quantities with operational interpretations. In the asymptotic sequential setting, we prove that the exact distinguishability cost is equal to channel max-relative entropy and the distillable distinguishability is equal to the amortized channel relative entropy of [arXiv:1808.01498]. This latter result can also be understood as a solution to Stein's lemma for quantum channels in the sequential setting. Finally, the theory simplifies significantly for environment-seizable and classical--quantum channel boxes.

%8 07/15/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.06306 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Resource theory of entanglement for bipartite quantum channels %A Stefan Bäuml %A Siddhartha Das %A Xin Wang %A Mark M. Wilde %XThe traditional perspective in quantum resource theories concerns how to use free operations to convert one resourceful quantum state to another one. For example, a fundamental and well known question in entanglement theory is to determine the distillable entanglement of a bipartite state, which is equal to the maximum rate at which fresh Bell states can be distilled from many copies of a given bipartite state by employing local operations and classical communication for free. It is the aim of this paper to take this kind of question to the next level, with the main question being: What is the best way of using free channels to convert one resourceful quantum channel to another? Here we focus on the the resource theory of entanglement for bipartite channels and establish several fundamental tasks and results regarding it. In particular, we establish bounds on several pertinent information processing tasks in channel entanglement theory, and we define several entanglement measures for bipartite channels, including the logarithmic negativity and the κ-entanglement. We also show that the max-Rains information of [Bäuml et al., Physical Review Letters, 121, 250504 (2018)] has a divergence interpretation, which is helpful for simplifying the results of this earlier work.

%8 07/08/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.04181 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T α-Logarithmic negativity %A Xin Wang %A Mark M. Wilde %XThe logarithmic negativity of a bipartite quantum state is a widely employed entanglement measure in quantum information theory, due to the fact that it is easy to compute and serves as an upper bound on distillable entanglement. More recently, the κ-entanglement of a bipartite state was shown to be the first entanglement measure that is both easily computable and operationally meaningful, being equal to the exact entanglement cost of a bipartite quantum state when the free operations are those that completely preserve the positivity of the partial transpose. In this paper, we provide a non-trivial link between these two entanglement measures, by showing that they are the extremes of an ordered family of α-logarithmic negativity entanglement measures, each of which is identified by a parameter α∈[1,∞]. In this family, the original logarithmic negativity is recovered as the smallest with α=1, and the κ-entanglement is recovered as the largest with α=∞. We prove that the α-logarithmic negativity satisfies the following properties: entanglement monotone, normalization, faithfulness, and subadditivity. We also prove that it is neither convex nor monogamous. Finally, we define the α-logarithmic negativity of a quantum channel as a generalization of the notion for quantum states, and we show how to generalize many of the concepts to arbitrary resource theories.

%8 04/23/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.10437 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Exact entanglement cost of quantum states and channels under PPT-preserving operations %A Xin Wang %A Mark M. Wilde %XThis paper establishes single-letter formulas for the exact entanglement cost of generating bipartite quantum states and simulating quantum channels under free quantum operations that completely preserve positivity of the partial transpose (PPT). First, we establish that the exact entanglement cost of any bipartite quantum state under PPT-preserving operations is given by a single-letter formula, here called the