|Title||Page curves and typical entanglement in linear optics|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Iosue, JT, Ehrenberg, A, Hangleiter, D, Deshpande, A, Gorshkov, AV|
Bosonic Gaussian states are a special class of quantum states in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space that are relevant to universal continuous-variable quantum computation as well as to near-term quantum sampling tasks such as Gaussian Boson Sampling. In this work, we study entanglement within a set of squeezed modes that have been evolved by a random linear optical unitary. We first derive formulas that are asymptotically exact in the number of modes for the Rényi-2 Page curve (the average Rényi-2 entropy of a subsystem of a pure bosonic Gaussian state) and the corresponding Page correction (the average information of the subsystem) in certain squeezing regimes. We then prove various results on the typicality of entanglement as measured by the Rényi-2 entropy by studying its variance. Using the aforementioned results for the Rényi-2 entropy, we upper and lower bound the von Neumann entropy Page curve and prove certain regimes of entanglement typicality as measured by the von Neumann entropy. Our main proofs make use of a symmetry property obeyed by the average and the variance of the entropy that dramatically simplifies the averaging over unitaries. In this light, we propose future research directions where this symmetry might also be exploited. We conclude by discussing potential applications of our results and their generalizations to Gaussian Boson Sampling and to illuminating the relationship between entanglement and computational complexity.