Folding-Free ZNE: A Comprehensive Quantum Zero-Noise Extrapolation Approach for Mitigating Depolarizing and Decoherence Noise

RQS Journal Club

Hrushikesh Pramod Patil (North Carolina State University)
Thursday, January 25, 2024 - 2:00pm
Virtual Via Zoom

Quantum computers in the NISQ era are prone to noise. A range of quantum error mitigation techniques has been proposed to address this issue. Zero-noise extrapolation (ZNE) stands out as a promising one. ZNE involves increasing the noise levels in a circuit and then using extrapolation to infer the zero noise case from the noisy results obtained. This paper presents a novel ZNE approach that does not require circuit folding or noise scaling to mitigate depolarizing and/or decoherence noise. To mitigate depolarizing noise, we propose leveraging the extreme/infinite noisy case, which allows us to avoid circuit folding. Specifically, the circuit output with extreme noise becomes the maximally mixed state. We show that using circuit-reliability metrics, simple linear extrapolation can effectively mitigate depolarizing noise. With decoherence noise, different states decay into the all-zero state at a rate that depends on the number of excited states and time. Therefore, we propose a state- and latency-aware exponential extrapolation that does not involve folding or scaling. When dealing with a quantum system affected by both decoherence and depolarizing noise, we propose to use our two mitigation techniques in sequence: first applying decoherence error mitigation, followed by depolarizing error mitigation. A common limitation of ZNE schemes is that if the circuit of interest suffers from high noise, scaling-up noise levels could not provide useful data for extrapolation. We propose using circuit-cut techniques to break a large quantum circuit into smaller sub-circuits to overcome this limitation. This way, the noise levels of the sub-circuits are lower than the original circuit, and ZNE can become more effective in mitigating their noises.

The meeting will also include a brief discussion and introduction to Quantum Error Mitigation and Reliability estimation of a quantum computer.

*We strongly encourage attendees to use their full name (and if possible, their UMD credentials) to join the zoom session.*